Harvey v. Shulkin, docket no. 16-1515 (Feb. 7, 2018)
HELD: Whether an attorney’s submission should be treated as a medical opinion depends on several factors, including (1) the text of the submission, (2) the identification of the author as attorney or medical professional, (3) the indicators of legal advocacy/argument in the submission, and (4) the presence of a medical opinion with supporting rationale.
SUMMARY: Mr. Harvey appealed the denial of service connection for sleep apnea. At the agency level, he was represented by David Anaise, a licensed medical doctor, attorney, and accredited VA representative. In his “appeal brief” to the RO, he stated that the veteran’s sleep apnea was more likely related to his service-connected PTSD on a secondary basis, and cited supporting medical literature. The Board denied service connection, relying on a negative C&P opinion and stating that “[t]here are no contrary opinions of record.”
On appeal to the Court, Mr. Harvey argued that the denial was in error because the Board failed to address the favorable medical opinion “submitted by his attorney-physician representative.” The Court noted that VA law does not establish requirements for determining “whether a specific submission constitutes a medical opinion” and declined to “prescribe absolute requirements” for such determinations. The Court held that these determinations are “to be undertaken individually,” and that the Board may “be obligated to assess whether that submission is a medical opinion and consider it in adjudicating a claim.”
The Court outlined several factors that should be considered in making this assessment, including whether the author of the submission identified himself/herself as a medical professional, whether the content of the submission indicated that it was legal argument, and whether the content of the submission indicated that it was a medical opinion. Because Mr. Anaise did not identify himself as acting in the capacity of a medical professional, and because the submission contained indications of legal argument and no indication that it was a medical opinion (i.e., there was no language, such as “in my medical opinion”), the Court determined that the Board did not err by failing to treat this submission as a medical opinion.
The Court also ordered oral argument for the parties to address the ethical issue of an attorney representative serving as an expert witness in a case. Because the Court held that Mr. Anaise’s “brief” was not a medical opinion, it found there was no violation of Rule 3.7 of the Model Rules of Professional Conduct.
Finally, the Court addressed the appellant’s argument that “the Board improperly relied on its own medical judgment to determine that the article reflected a correlative rather than a causal relationship between PTSD and sleep apnea.” The Court discussed the medical treatise evidence that had been submitted and stated that it is within the Board’s purview to interpret such treatise’s meaning and assess its probative value. The Court found that the Board correctly applied the legal standard required for assessing service connection on a secondary basis. The Court explained that that “correlation” between a service-connected condition and a secondary condition is not sufficient to establish secondary service connection; “a causation or aggravation relationship is required.”